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Female alopeciaWhat Are the Factors That Can Cause Alopecia?

What Are the Factors That Can Cause Alopecia?

Alopecia areata is a condition rooted in the body’s immune system. This condition arises when the immune system mistakenly identifies a part of the body as an outsider and launches an attack. In the case of alopecia areata, this assault is directed towards hair follicles, the structures responsible for hair growth, and occasionally extends its impact to the nails. 

When hair loss becomes apparent, it signifies that the immune system has turned against the hair follicles. Hair loss isn’t confined to a single area; it can manifest on any body part that normally sprouts hair, such as the scalp, eyelashes, eyebrows, arms, or legs. Fortunately, the damage inflicted on hair follicles by this autoimmune attack is seldom irreparable. In many cases, hair can be encouraged to regrow. 

Alopecia areata can also influence the condition of your nails. You may observe tiny dents, thinning, splitting, or the emergence of white spots. In some instances, the nails may even develop a texture reminiscent of sandpaper. 

Whether you’ve personally grappled with it or know someone who has, understanding the factors that can trigger alopecia is crucial. In this article, we will delve into the intricate web of influences that contribute to alopecia, shedding light on the multifaceted nature of this condition. 

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Alopecia Areata Risk Factors 


Alopecia areata is an equal-opportunity condition, impacting individuals from diverse racial backgrounds and all gender identities. This enigmatic ailment is not confined by age, but it does display a preference for striking during the formative years. It frequently emerges in one’s teens, twenties, or thirties, a phase of life marked by significant physiological and emotional changes. Remarkably, alopecia areata isn’t exclusive to adults; it’s also recognized as the most common type of hair loss among children. You run a higher risk if you: 

Genetic Connection 


Genetics intertwines intriguingly with this hair-loss puzzle. Evidence suggests that alopecia areata can be hereditary. People who experience this condition at a young age often find a familial link, pointing towards a genetic predisposition. In essence, inheriting specific genes could increase one’s susceptibility to this type of hair loss. Many of these genes are intertwined with the functioning of the immune system, creating a fascinating connection between genetics and immunology. However, it’s crucial to note that possessing these genes doesn’t guarantee the development of alopecia areata. 

Autoimmune Maladies 

Alopecia areata shares an autoimmune foundation with other health conditions like psoriasis, thyroid disorders, and vitiligo. These autoimmune diseases are linked through an underlying mechanism of immune system malfunction. Consequently, if you grapple with one of these autoimmune disorders, your risk of developing alopecia areata rises. In essence, it’s an autoimmune domino effect, where one autoimmune condition can set the stage for another. 

Allergy and Skin Condition Correlation 


Research illuminates a connection between alopecia areata and certain allergic and dermatological conditions. If you’re dealing with asthma, hay fever, or atopic dermatitis, your vulnerability to alopecia areata may be heightened. The exact mechanisms of this association are still under scrutiny by the scientific community. 

Nivolumab’s Nuanced Impact 

In the realm of cancer treatment, the drug nivolumab has emerged as a double-edged sword. While it effectively combats cancer, it can also provoke alopecia areata, or its more severe counterpart, alopecia universalis (total hair loss). This side effect typically manifests a few months after the initiation of nivolumab treatment, a testament to the intricate interplay between immune response and hair follicles. Dermatologists may refer to this specific type of hair loss as “nivolumab-induced alopecia areata.” 


For individuals who have spent a decade or more as habitual smokers, with a daily consumption exceeding five cigarettes, a heightened risk of alopecia areata emerges. The precise mechanisms behind this link remain partially shrouded in mystery. Nonetheless, it is known that smoking contributes to systemic inflammation, which might elevate the likelihood of the immune system erroneously targeting hair follicles. 

Crucially, it’s essential to grasp that an elevated risk doesn’t equate to an inevitable outcome. Alopecia areata remains an unpredictable condition, and even individuals devoid of apparent risk factors can find themselves grappling with it. 

Should you observe signs of hair loss, it’s advisable to seek consultation with a dermatologist. These specialized medical professionals possess in-depth knowledge of conditions impacting the skin, hair, and nails, ensuring you receive accurate diagnosis and tailored guidance. 

Effective Treatment Approaches 

Alopecia areata can be a distressing condition. However, several treatment options are available to address its effects. Let’s explore these strategies in detail. 

Topical Corticosteroids 

One common treatment involves the application of topical corticosteroids to the affected areas. These medications can help suppress the immune system’s response, reducing inflammation and promoting hair regrowth. 

Intralesional Corticosteroid Injections 

For more stubborn cases, doctors may recommend intralesional corticosteroid injections. These injections are administered directly into the affected areas of the scalp. They work by reducing inflammation around the hair follicles, allowing them to recover and regrow hair. 

Topical Minoxidil 

Minoxidil, commonly used for pattern baldness, is another option. It can be applied topically to the scalp to stimulate hair follicles and encourage regrowth. However, its effectiveness for alopecia areata varies among individuals. 

Anthralin Cream 

Anthralin cream, another topical treatment, can also be prescribed. It helps regulate the immune response in the affected area and can be useful in some cases. 


In more severe or widespread cases, immunotherapy may be recommended. This treatment involves applying a substance like diphencyprone (DPCP) or squaric acid dibutyl ester (SADBE) to the scalp, which triggers an allergic reaction. This reaction can shift the immune response away from attacking hair follicles. 

Oral Medications 

Oral corticosteroids, such as prednisone, may be prescribed for extensive alopecia areata. However, these medications carry potential side effects and are typically used when other treatments have proven ineffective. 

JAK Inhibitors 

Emerging treatments like Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have shown promise. Medications like tofacitinib and ruxolitinib, originally developed for other conditions, have been used off-label for alopecia areata and have demonstrated positive outcomes in some cases. 

Hair Transplants 

For individuals with long-term or irreversible hair loss, hair transplantation surgery is an option. During this procedure, hair follicles from one part of the body are transplanted to the affected scalp area. 


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